History of Astrology
"A few words about astrology through the ages" or "summary of the history of Astrology" would probably be more appropriate title for this record, but ... Even to summarize in a few pages of the history of World Astrology which found the first traces 4000 years ago is not easy! Timetables oracular Egyptians, and Chinese Astrology Precolombiens to Modern via the golden days of Astrology in 15 th century, then the obscurantism of the 17 th century, there is much to say. Through the centuries, depending on the continent, Astrology has been perceived, accepted, practiced differently.
Admittedly, since Babylon, it has evolved along the course of human progress, taking advantage of new knowledge, technological advances, the best knowledge of the world by humans, but if it is interesting to develop and understand, ' is not essential, because there is no direct relationship between the historical precedence of the time and look it relates to Astrology.
What we think is much more important is the relationship, the interaction between the design of society itself and the rest of the world, and how it accepts (not) Astrology at a time given in a particular location around the globe. We will not pretend, in a few pages, to deal with all of the history of astrology, it would report also tedious reading ... But some examples seem interesting to understand how the discipline has evolved over the centuries.
Indeed, some argue that Astrology is not an exact science and yet ... We can notice, through its history, that Astrology is often better understood in the technically advanced societies and intellectually open to the world, and that ultimately the way it has been apprehended depends less on the time that the company in itself. During the Renaissance, for example, renewal formidable intellectual, scientific and cultural development of European society, politically astrologers were present: In Hungary, the decision was taken to date was to be built Presbourg University with a study astrological. In England, on astrologers employed as ambassadors, anywhere Astrology was taught in universities and she was able to flourish.
While the latest despotism when France became the very foundation of society, when the monarchy commit the fundamental mistake to pull back on itself, crystallize in a state immutable, so that it the World continued to evolve, Astrology was, initially discouraged and prohibited. Diderot and Voltaire and the raillaient mocked them, Colbert prohibits academicians of the exercise, and Leibniz, yet tolerant, said he despised that "what led to the pure illusion, as the astrological divination."
But what Astrology is seen as a science, a philosophy or school of thought, that is not the subject of this case. Its purpose is not to debate or argue to convince them that ... Astrology Works! We just want to say a few words about its history, the history of Astrology, which is discipline, in the words of Ernest Cassirer in 1922 "One of the most grandiose attempts ever dared to the human spirit to give a representation overall World "...
In ancient Egypt, China and pre-Columbian America, we find the trace of divination schedules that are a kind of precursor of Astrology. It would be long to itemise all, and even if the subject is exciting, this is not the subject of this case. We have therefore chosen to speak specifically oracular Egyptian calendars (also called Nile calendars), as they seem to represent a subtle perception of the world by man, a faculty interesting to understand the environment for intellectual , scientific and religious in order to better know him.
These calendars were oracular starting point fluctuations Nile and the need to provide its waters if fertilizers - but also destructive - and thus allow more effectively regulate agriculture. We must understand that any Egyptian society had been conceived and built around the Nile, not for the tame but to live in harmony with this gift from heaven. In predicting the flooding was vital to the survival of the community and find a harmony with nature gave birth to an intellectual elite mathematicians, engineers and astronomers.
Around 1500 BC, observing Sirius stand, the Egyptians predicted the coming flood of the river and knew when the annual cycle again. In ancient Egypt, science and religion have no objection, elders Egyptians were very pious, venerating the Light, the source of eternal life and believe in the manifestation of God in the sun. This piety, combined with knowledge of mathematics and astronomy indisputable that fit that Egypt was the first civilization to establish a calendar year cut in 12 months and 360 days (to which they added 5 days interlayers placed at the end of the schedule). The party celebrating the new year matched the day of the annual flooding of the Nile, and each month was under the influence of a God who characterized. The months were themselves divided into 3 "décans" 10 days and the days themselves cut into 2 periods of 12 hours, also under the influence of superior forces, the Planets. Depending on the month of birth, date and time, a person was placed under the influence of a God and Planets.
Of course, these calendars Oracle had little to do with Astrology as it is understood and practiced nowadays, but they still reflect a desire some men try to master their destiny ...
Like the Egyptians, the Chinese had a pretty fine perception of the world around them and there was a gap between the sophisticated civilization and religion which we believe is now extremely primary, with for example the belief in the Gods domestic . For the Chinese, there was total harmony with heaven, earth and man and the latter should ensure smooth functioning of the established order, between life and death, activity and rest, day and night, which both flow fundamental principles of Yin and Yang, each growing when the other goes down, and taking the power when the other loses. To fulfil this task "oversight", the man was observed events among themselves and the meaning of their correspondence with the cosmos. Very early in China, circa 2350 BC were established timetables year in which China was divided into 12 lunar months and for a very long time there was an astrology based on the principle of "8 trigrams," composed of symbols lines straight or off that reflected the principles of Yin and Yang, Yang is masculine, active solar diurnal and builder and Yin rather feminine, passive, lunar night and sometimes destructive.
In Yin and Yang were associated elements 5, wood, fire, metal, water and earth themselves linked to the twelve animals of the zodiac Rat (Ram), the Beef (Taurus), the Tiger (Gemini ), the Hare (Cancer), the Dragon (Lion), Serpent (Virgin), Horse (Balance), Mouton (Scorpion), The Monkey (Sagittarius), La Poule (Capricorn), Chien (Aquarius) the Pork (Pisces). These three principles ensured the harmony of the cosmos and constituted the foundation of Chinese astrology.
Every Chinese, at its birth, consisted of a kind of "calling card" astral composed of 8 trigrams, 2 for the year, 2 for the month, 2 for the day and 2 for double time when he was born, and to interpret Chinese astrologers should take account of a large number of combinations. For the anecdote, Chinese astrology does the time of birth that for every two hours: for example, two individuals born eg 14.00 or 15.55 rigorously have the same topic (the day is divided into 12 double slice of hour), which also brings some criticism and some remarks on behalf of Western astrology clearly differentiates two themes hours of birth separated by just a minute or even a few seconds.
Unlike the Chinese and Egyptians, Romans, the peoples of peasants and soldiers, were more interested in war, politics and conquests by science and in ancient Rome, although Astrology experienced some beautiful times, it was in any case included solely for the purpose of serving power. In 118 BC, the defeat of the king of Syria, Antiochus III had the effect, among other things, that hundreds of nomads flock to Rome, a prestigious metropolis.
Among them were "Chaldeans" fortune-tellers and horoscopes makers. The people of the consulted for its future and 139 BC, an edict was issued banning them Italian soil because they "exploited popular credulity with their astrology misleading." But the slaves and freedmen working for the Roman families do not fall within the purview of this ban, and continued to predict, some Roman rich and powerful who wanted to assimilate Greek culture, rival of the Roman culture, taking under their protection.
Discussions are followed, during which some members of the Academy became critics of the Astrology, using arguments that we hear today, as individuals born at the same time or in one place have the same horoscope, and yet they often have designed completely different. "
Astrology experienced a subsequent period embellished with the arrival on the floor of the Roman Posidonios of Apamea, possessor of an encyclopaedic knowledge, who taught in Rome, which took students as famous as Caesar and Cicero. Astrology became fashionable, only wastelands thought this could not, horoscopes were widely disseminated and it be used to buy jewellery and precious stones representing the signs of the zodiac, though still imperfect timing of the Romans led to doubts immense same signs as to which they belonged: the famous Emperor Augustus himself is passionately Astrology, ignored all his life if he was Capricorn or Balance ... Mathematician (in Rome astrologers were called Chaldeans is either mathematicians because of the calculations necessary) and poet Manilius also composed for him his Astronomiques, didactic poem in 5 books on astrology.
The powerful Roman Empire lasted more than 500 years, and here we are not going to explain in detail its history, it is important to understand that during this period and contrary to Ancient Egypt, Astrology, rejected and denied prohibited, or on the contrary praised and promoted based on the personal ambitions of politicians in place, which was used to serve power.
In the struggles between Powers toll intellectual foundations of the ancient culture, astrology came to a very special place and found unexpected allies in Christianity, even if it seems obvious that the "fatalism" astral, somewhat akin At that time the Stoic thought was in total opposition to the Christian dogmas of the omnipotence of God. But astrology adapted to the Christian belief of hi, rejecting some form of fatalism to replace it gradually by the free will. For many, the stars were not the driving forces, but simple signs and thought astrological influenced the early Christians.
This resulted in the birth of some form of astrology "Christianized", which saw the astral configurations divine signs and left to man's free will, therefore finding adherents among Christians and even the clergy. It was not until the arrival of St. Augustine, a man with a strong personality and a new situation in the church and in the state, leading to the end of the ancient astrology.
There are three separate systems that constitute the Hindu Astrology:
-- Parasari (the wise Parasara, disciple of Saunaka, himself Narada, belongs to the descendants of the Prophet Vedic Vasishta, the son of Uma Sakti have lived there more than 5000 years);
-- Jaimini, whose name derives from its author,
-- Jatakapi or Tajak, more modern and Astrology influenced by Arabic, and which deals with horoscopes progressed (technique is to move the planets with a match year / day).
It would be futile here to describe these systems very comprehensive - and very complex - which would require a book for each. Most important of these astrologies Hindu is that they are based on sidereal zodiac and not for the tropical Western Astrology: The sidereal zodiac is based on the constellations while the tropical zodiac is based on the signs, it is pegged to the seasons in some way. Both zodiacs are shifted because every year, a shift of about 50 seconds between the signs of constellations, it is called the precession of the equinoxes.
Both systems based on astrological zodiac these two are quite different, and it is not a question of going into the debate as to which one is most effective. Another distinctive feature of Hindu astrology, like Arabic, even if it seems obvious ... Is not to take account of planets beyond Saturn: Uranus, Neptune and Pluto that were not visible to the instruments of the time.
The vocation of spiritual Hindu Astrology also differs from the Western Astrology, more intellectual. The lunar nodes - spiritual or karmic nature - for example are studied in Hindu Astrology. The theme is used in a square shape that was long favoured in Western astrology.
It is time to say a few words about Astrology Helléniste, born while the Greek civilization had tremendous influence throughout the world, especially in Eastern countries, Astrology outcome of both science astral Eastern, Greek philosophy and of Thought Egyptian and which is still the foundation of modern astrology.
Astrology Hellenist was composed of 4 main factors: the planets, the zodiac, the circle of 12 houses and configurations that generated these aspects, the birth of the first astral themes elsewhere individualized dating from that period.
Later, Claudius Ptolemaeus (v100-v170) mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer and musician who lived much of his life in Alexandria, a city hosting many scientists, was one of the fathers of modern Astrology through her research and books, the most famous of which, containing Almagest as stated Ptolemy himself an exhibition system in the world, is today a household name. His calculations regarding astronomy and especially the movements of planets, as well as the work of geographer allowed him to map the planet with high precision for the time he invented and the Astrolabe, an instrument that led to a plane representation the sky for a latitude and a certain date.
That Ptolemy who was the author of that sentence if sage who represents the whole philosophy of modern astrology: "The stars incline but do not."
To interpret the horoscope, Arabs (Arabs we will hear from all the people who wrote in the vernacular) were referring, among other sources, to the works of Ptolemy. Astrology Arabic took three forms: Astrology généthliaque (on the daily horoscope birth), Astrology and hourly Astrology magic to invoke the Gods global and making talismans and amulets effective, combining influence of a planet with metals and signs that it corresponded. Astrology généthliaque, which found little literature, but the oral tradition that has preserved, was based (and still is today) on the principle that life is a struggle and that men are born under the sign two weapons, one for the birth (what are we starting? What are our potential?) and one for the arrival (as we are now?) Weapons are three types of short, medium or long depending on their symbolic.
In the early Middle Ages, Celts, Slavs and Germans were using astronomy necessary for their many travels but Astrology was seen almost everywhere as pagan. It's just that Louis will Stake took the advice of astrologers, but it remains a very special case. After the collapse of the Carolingian Empire disputes settled and we found in this troubled time when uncertainty and anxiety reigned, a rise of the influence of the Greco-Arabic thought, very significant in monasteries, which became places of reflection, listening to new philosophies.
At that time, The Nature was the mainstay of philosophical thought and religious. God had created for the benefit of man, and we were to agree that astrology can predict everything that was the time he would do for agriculture or even diseases due to natural causes but it is able to predict in any case that was directly dependent on the free will of man. From great minds of the time, as St. Thomas Aquinas, Italian philosopher and theologian (1225-1274) believed that predict the fate of a man was an illusion demonic.
But Astrology learned (as opposed to Astrology popular because it deals with the global aspects of each individual in particular) at that time also found defenders, in the person among other things, the English Roger Bacon (1214-1294 ), a man from the point of view very modern, which rose against the formalism of the Dominicans (St. Thomas Aquinas was part), which claimed that no astrologer professait astral fatalism, that the only important thing was the experience very foundation of every philosophy and astrology was one of the pillars. He delivered a fight tirelessly to impose its views, sometimes even unorthodox because he was belligerent character, going so far as to ask the church to encourage research astrological so on the one hand to prevent practices related to astrology pagan and on the other hand to highlight what he called the astrologia sana, based on experience and experimentation.
Astrology Graeco-Arabic therefore penetrated everywhere in the West. In Italy, there were astrologers at the court of Palermo who received favors from the king and one lives Frederik II even ask them to write books on astrology in which they had to explain that the stars were not acting, that 'they could not produce anything themselves but they gave simple signs. There were books on astrology at all universities and libraries. In England, astrologers drafted ephemeris pronostications and "France" and astrologers were also present at the court, although astrology forecast was still regarded as pagan and demonic.
Jean de Meurs, a famous astrologer, was forecast at the sensational combination of great 1345. In recent inquiétèrent strong public opinion and the court, and King Charles V Le Sage did write treaties affirming that these forecasts were in the field of superstition, going so far as to claim that the astrologers had not planned ' black plague epidemic of 1349, which was totally untrue.
Upon followed, France and England in particular, a heated debate between supporters and opponents of astrology divination, which was the direct consequence of challenging the formidable work of Ptolemy, some scientists, religious and intellectuals of the time calling them speculation inconsistent.
In the late Middle Ages currents of thought taking protective and reassuring for the primordial role of Nature in philosophical thought s'estompèrent and men began to look for other answers, while it simultaneously scientific discoveries abounded. .. Renaissance was preparing.
In astronomy, the first discovery of the Renaissance was that of Nicolas of Cusa mathematician (1401-1469), German philosopher and theologian, considered the last thinker of the Middle Ages and the first of the Renaissance, which claimed that the land n had neither centre nor perimeter and it was moving around an axis. He called this theory "theory of relativity location and movement." At the time, this affirmation of marbles left academia and intellectual and astrologers only understood the importance of such a phenomenal discovery.
Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer, was the first to place the sun at the center of the universe, while for 14 centuries no one had dared to say that the earth turns on an axis. By observing Mercury and Venus, he came to the conclusion that the earth turns at the same time on an axis, but also around the sun, a theory which was again greeted very coldly by scientists and again defended by the astrologers. Copernicus tried to convince his peers, and then it is a découragea astrologer who did publish his book in many copies, which had the effect of gradually accept these revolutionary discoveries in spite of their contradiction with the Bible. The assertions Copernic also will be considered heretical by the church in 1616.
Galileo (1564-1642), Italian astronomer very believer, and again defended the work of Copernicus, and invented telescopes that allowed him to discover a wealth of different planets. He went to Rome to try to convince the church to the merits of his discoveries, and became a friend of Young Pope Urban VIII. The discoveries of Copernicus always being tried as heretics, the pope, young and progressive Galilee asked to resume and write a book and contradictory goal on the various systems of the world.
Galileo will several years to write, while continuing to practice astronomy and astrology, and reassuring astrologers who feared that these new discoveries n'ébranlent the foundations of Astrology. When the result of his research was published in 1631, the pope furious because there Galilee defended the work of Copernicus, will order the seizure of the book, but too late because it will be widely distributed. Galilee, to save his life, will be summoned to recant before the Inquisition, and will be found guilty, then rehabilitated after his death in 1757 when the theories of Copernicus will be recognized by the church.
During the Renaissance, the foundations of Astrology, from the Hellenistic system evolved little, maintaining the principle planets, signs, houses and aspects, but the astrological calculations advantage of discoveries in algebra and trigonometry to develop. Tables for detailed calculations taking into account the hours of sunrise and sunset, movements of the planets and their positions were widely disseminated through the introduction of the printing press.
Attitudes quickly expanded, as is always the case when the school of thought that predominates advocates and promotes an opening to the world and the scope of Astrology expanded in all areas, from all branches of know and all sectors of life. Astrologers scientists remained cautious and led a relentless war to charlatans who went up to give advice on the type ridiculous hair or clothing, forecasts that the people s'arrachait. We live also develop astrological medicine, taught in some universities in Europe, discipline that could not be a good doctor by being a good astrologer.
The best-known prophecies are certainly those of Nostradamus (Michel de Nostredame 1503-1560) and seeing french astrologer whose forecasts were highly controversial. He used big conjunctions addition, the planetary cycles and periods of history, his gifts of clairvoyance and published his famous prophecies, which made sense when Henry II died while Nostradamus had predicted.
Everybody has to mind an anecdote about his son, also an astrologer, which put the fire in the small town of Pouzin, in the Ardèche, so that it was destroyed according to his predictions!
Gradually Astrology reached its zenith at the same time as the Renaissance, in Italy it will be supported by the Popes and France Catherine de Medicis will protect and encouraged her, gathering around her astrologers, including one of the most Famous remain Nostradamus.
Different causes then led to a rapid decline of Astrology. The 30-year war beginning with its attendant horrors of dead and revived beliefs with devils and witches, astrologers and were quickly perceived as charlatans who aiguisaient concerns of the people.
Descartes (1596-1650) in his Discourse on the Method, took somewhat theory Bacon, with an approach based on experiments to explain the nature and claimed that it was taken for true and real than what was quantifiable , which obviously excludes the occult sciences, the new mathematical and mechanical design of nature is in total contradiction with what could have Astrology deductive.
In the Enlightenment, Astrology already weakened, was finally washed away by rationalism and despotism become the organizing principle of the rule and life. It deprived the astrologers of their instruments of work and, abandoned by its protectors, Astrology became the plaything of charlatans and the marginalized, serving sometimes simplistic game for ladies of the court. In the encyclopedia published by Diderot and d'Alembert, who was the general structure of the eighteenth century, Astrology was dealt with contempt and Voltaire wrote that no reasonable man could not take it seriously.
Yet, in 1811 when Goethe undertook the writing of his memoirs, it does not feared to begin her story by the comment of his own horoscope, confessing a passion for this discipline and practice for many years. It was in Germany that Astrology is the first defenders which will begin its slow rehabilitation, romantics hoping that German machinery cosmic kind of rationalism mechanical finally to become a living being.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Romantic movement won England where he continued to develop, even if all the researchers Astrology hid behind a pseudonym which is indicative of its poor reputation. In France, the homeland of rationalism par excellence, the defenders of Astrology came together in secret societies whose most famous representatives were Father Constant (under the pseudonym Eliphas Levi) and the doctor Gerard Encausse (under the pseudonym Papus ).
It was not until 1885 qu'Abel Haatan published a book seriously, "The manual Astrology and judicial sphere," followed a few years' share of global Geniuses "by Francois-Charles Barlet, work resumed thereafter and depth by other astrologers, who gave the starting point of Astrology science as we know it today.
ummmmm...wowwwhat can i say this is kinda crazy but if you are into all this astolgy then you shold be cause i do and everything that it told me to do and the results happen!!!!!!!!!! it wwas great and if your a stong belivere then GO FOR IT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thanks for the information on astrology, I am a Leo and for some reason always trying to read into this.
Now, I know the history of astrology. Generally, I just know the astrology from magazine. Now, it helps me to add my knowledge about astrology.
That's way more celevr than I was expecting. Thanks!